THE INSTITUTIONS OF THE UNION OF THE COMOROS

The National Assembly is, according to the Constitution, the legislative committee of the Union. It is consisted of thirty-three members of parliament elected for a mandate of fi ve (5) years.

Moroni - L'Assemblée

ASSEMBLY OF THE UNION
Its members are appointed by the Assemblies of the islands, at the rate of fi ve members of parliament by island; eighteen others are elected by direct universal suffrage within the framework of an election on a majority basis for a single candidate in two rounds. No member of the Assembly of the Union can be pursued, looked for, arrested, detained or judged on the base of opinions or the votes emitted by him during the practice his duties. Any imperative mandate is invalid and the right to vote of the members of the Assembly of the Union is personal. The law of the Union can exceptionally authorise the delegation of vote to another deputy. In that case, nobody can receive delegation of more than a mandate. The Assembly of the Union meets as of right in two common sessions a year, the total duration of which cannot exceed six months. It is gathered in extraordinary session, at the request of the President of the Union or of the absolute majority of the members of parliament, on a defi - nite agenda. The extraordinary session cannot exceed fi fteen days as from its meeting. The sessions of the Assembly of the Union are as a rule public. The initiative of the laws belongs in conjunction to the President of the Union and to the members of parliament. Bills are deliberated in the Council of Ministers and deposited at the offi ce of the Assembly of the Union.

ASSEMBLY OF ANJOUAN
The Assembly of the island is, according to the Constitution, the legislative organ of the autonomous island of Anjouan. The members of parliament are elected in the direct universal suffrage and in the uninominal system in two rounds. The number of members of parliament is fi xed to 25. The members of parliament are elected for a mandate of four years. Every Comorian citizen is eligible for the seat of deputy and should be of Anjouan origin, with good morality, and who his civil rights 30-year-old past at the polling day and having lived at least eighteen months without discontinuity on the territory of the Union of the Comoros. The candidate for a seat of deputy must know how to read, to write, to understand and to master at least two of the three offi cial languages of the Union of the Comoros. The Assembly of the island meets as of right in two common sessions every year. The fi rst session begins the fi rst Thursday of September of every year. Its duration cannot exceed three months.

ASSEMBLY OF MOHELI
The legislative power is exercised by the assembly of the island of Mohéli which consists of ten deputies elected in the direct universal suffrage for a mandate of four years, according to the voting system for a single member in two rounds. The candidates have to be at least over 25 years at the date of the ballot, knowing how to read, write, and speak the Shikomor, French or Arabic. The law fi xes the other conditions of eligibility, the regime of incompatibility as well as the conditions and the modalities of replacement of the members of parliament in case of vacancy until the renewal of the legislative assembly. No deputy can be pursued, looked for, arrested, detained or judged on the occasion of the opinions or the votes emitted by him when exercising his duties. The assembly of the island meets in two common sessions every year. The fi rst one begins on the fi rst of the month of April and the second on the fi rst of the month of October. The assembly of the island can also meet in an extraordinary session either at the request of the President of the executive of the island or at the request of the majority of the members composing it, on a defi - nite agenda. A common session lasts at most forty fi ve days and an extraordinary session fi fteen days at most.

ASSEMBLY DE NGAZIDJA
According to the Constitution of Ngazidja, the legislative power of the island is exercised by the Assembly of the island. The deputies are elected with a delegate in the direct universal suffrage within the framework of an election on a majority basis for a single member in two rounds. The candidates must be at least over 25 years old on December 31st of the year which precedes that of the ballot and must know how to read and write at least two of the three offi cial languages and have lived at least six (06) months before the date of the ballot without discontinuity in the Union. According to the Constitution, the mandate of deputy is incompatible with the exercise of any other elective public mandate and any public employment, and the deputy named member of the Government of the island or of the Union is outgoing automatic of its mandate and replaced by his delegate. The Assembly of the island of Ngazidja meets on the last Friday of March and on the last Friday of November. It can also meet in an extraordinary session at the request of the President of the island or the majority of the members composing of the Assembly of the island, on a defi nite agenda. A common session lasts at most sixty days and an extraordinary session a fortnight at most.

THE CONSTITUTIONAL COURT
The Constitutional court is, according to the Constitution of the Union, the judge of the constitutionality of the laws of the Union and of the Islands. It sees to the conformity of the electoral operations so much on the Islands that at the level of the Union, including in referendum matters; it is the judge of the electoral litigation. Finally, it guarantees the fundamental human rights and the civil liberties. Every citizen can seize the Constitutional court on the constitutionality of the laws, either directly, or by the procedure of the exception of unconstitutionality called in a case by which it is concerned in front of a jurisdiction of the Union or Islands. The latter has to defer until the decision of the Constitutional Court which has to intervene within thirty days. The president of the Union, the vice-presidents of the Union, the president of the Assembly of the Union as well as the Leaders of the Executives of the islands each appoint a member of the Constitutional Court. According to the Constitution, the members of the Constitutional Court have to be of high morality and integrity as well as of a recognized competence in the legal, administrative, economic or social fi eld. They have to prove a minimum working experience of fi fteen years. They are appointed for a renewable mandate of six years. The members of the Constitutional court are irremovable. Except if caught red-handed, they cannot be pursued and detained without the authorisation of the High Jurisdiction.

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